Fundamental of Electrical Power System Protection

Fundamental of Electrical Power System Protection

Learn directly from a Global Professional Electrical Engineer with +17 years of Field Experience , Protection & Control

What you’ll learn

  • Introduction to Electrical Protection Philosophy
  • Going through history of power system network
  • Advantages & Disadvantages of Power Network
  • Introduce to concept of SCADA, Smart Metering, Micro Grid
  • Introduction to Cascade Faults in network
  • How Power Quality of Network is assessed
  • Briefing on Flase Tripping due to poor relay coordination
  • What is meaning of localization of fault
  • What are Fault & Even Records
  • Fault investigation
  • What is Comtrade file
  • Synch & Auto Reclosing, Power Swing
  • What is required to protect
  • Step & Touch Potential Hazards
  • Lighting Protection Explained
  • What is purpose of protection
  • Step Potential Hazard near fallen conductor
  • Reason of Massive Blackouts and how to avoid them
  • How to Limit damage
  • Why Gravel is laid in AIS
  • Voltage or Current Which is lethal
  • Introduction to earth leakage Relay
  • Protection System Characteristics Selectivity. Sensitivity. Speed. Reliability. Simplicity. Economy.
  • Relationship of Sensitivity and relay burden
  • Which relay have more buden 1 Amp of 5 Amp?
  • Identify what primary, secondary and control equipments are
  • Difference among Circuit Breaker, Isolator & Load Break Switch
  • System Primary Components, Lighting Arrestor, CT,VT CB, Isolator, Busbar, Lighting Mast, AIS, GIS, T/F,MV SWGR, Batteries, Chargers
  • Introduction to Single Line Diagram
  • Introduction of Schematics / Detail Drawings
  • Introduction to Interlock Logic Diagram
  • Explained GIS, LCC, Gas Diagram, Gas compartment
  • Explained basic components Harting Plug, terminal block Din Rail
  • Auxiliary Relays and its type
  • Magnetic Contactors
  • Main Relays & Protection Panels
  • What is Burden and how to find relay rated burden
  • Engineering Design Phase intro
  • Manufacturing & Delivery Phase intro
  • Installation Testing & Commissioning Phase
  • Maintenance Phase , concept of life cycle cost, Maintenance cost
  • What are Zones of Protection, Zone Over lapping, Primary & Backup protection, duplicate protection
  • Feeder, motor, Generator & Line protection Zone by example
  • Understand Selectivity & Zones of protection
  • How Zones help to localize the fault
  • What is meaning of close & open zone
  • Tele Protection , Backup protection at local & Remote loaction
  • Understanding how different elements of Protection system operates
  • Classification of Relays
  • Electromechnical , Digital , Microprocessor based & Numerical Relays
  • Attracted Armature Type, Plunger Type, Induction Disk type, Induction cup type, D´Arsonval unit, Thermal Relays
  • Interposing C.T , Phase & Ration Compensation requirements for transformer differential protection
  • Intro to Sensor, SF6 Gauges, Winding & Oil Temperature Gauges, Pressure relief device, sudden pressure device, Buchholz Relays
  • Introduction to definite time and inverse time Over Current Relays
  • Introduction to Directional Over Current Relays
  • Introduction to Magnitude & Differential Protection
  • What are phase comparison relays and how they operate
  • Introduction to breaker fail & busbar protection
  • Factors Influencing Relay Performance
  • Basic Electrical Theory, Ohm’s Law, Kirchhoff’s Current Law, Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law, Per unit System
  • How to calculate three phase power, rated primary and secondary current of Power transformer
  • How to calculate short circuit MVA, short circuit HV & LV current of transformer
  • Calculate Arc flash Hazard of transformer
  • Understanding Phases, Balance & Unbalance System, Three Phase, Phase to Phase & Single Phase Faults
  • Understanding Symmetrical Components
  • Current Transformer, Types, polarity, Saturation, ratio, error of C.T, Metering & Protection Core, Knee Point, Burden
  • Why C.T should never be open circuited, Why C.T secondary is grounded, Why Single point earthing is done.
  • What is star point towards line and bus means
  • Understand Accuracy limit factor & Name plate of C.T, Classes of C.T
  • Voltage transformer & its type, Error in voltage transformer, what is CCVT,
  • Ferro Damping & Compensating Reactor in CCVT, Why V.T secondary is grounded, Why Single point earthing is done.
  • Metering & Protection Core of V.T, Accuracy class, How to connect V.T secondary, Star & Open delta connections
  • Voltage Drop in V.T circuit, Voltage Factor, Ferro-Resonance in Magnetic Voltage Transformer
  • Substation Batteries, Why Batteries are required, types of batteries
  • How to measure capacity of Battery, What mean by AH, Specific gravity, Hydro Meter, Voltage per Cell & per bank
  • Explained DC system Single Line Diagram , How to do Maintenance of Batterries
  • Battery Charger, What is charger scheme in substation, Dropping Diodes, Terminal voltage, Float Boast & Trickle Charging,
  • Understanding Single Line Diagram of Charger
  • Ground of DC System, Why it is required, How it is done, DC Earthing problem in substation
  • What are capacitor storage trip units
  • Introduction to ANSI device numbers
  • Relays Application for Feeder, Generator, Motor, transformer, busbar. Which type of protection relays are installed
  • Concept of internal, external & through fault
  • Why transformer differential is different from Busbar differential
  • Introduction to Circuit Breaker, types of circuit breaker, . Bulk oil circuit-breaker B. Minimum oil circuit-breaker C. Air blast circuit-breaker D. Vacuum circuit-breaker E. SF6 circuit-breaker F. HVDC circuit-breaker
  • Understand Circuit Breaker Operating Cycle
  • Circuit Breaker, Anti pumping, Pole discrepancy, Trip Circuit Supervision Schems
  • Identify what primary, secondary and control equipments are
  • Explain how an over current & earth fault relay operates
  • Explain how the currents and voltages vary during all three phase fault conditions
  • Draw what an electrical protection system looks like
  • Equip a protection panel and identify all of the main equipments
  • Understand the requirements for a current transformer


  • The basic electrical principles
  • A basic understanding of electrical engineering


Protection & control systems are a critical part of the transmission & distribution systems that feed power to megacities & industries.

This course aims to introduce all of the basic principles associated with electrical power systems protection with examples.

I have tried my best to include a practical example from the field as I have 17 years of field experience in substations. I have included real examples, equipment nameplate, Single line diagram, real field examples.

The course will go into detail for the following key topics:-

· Introduce all of the key concepts of a protection system, power quality, reliability, fault & event recording.

· Show the basic principles behind electrical protection philosophy

· Explained cascade tripping, Comtrade files, how to localize the faults

· Look at step & touch potential concept, Voltage or Current which is lethal

· Why gravel is used in substation, How to protect equipment & human

· Look at Earth Leakage Relay, How it operates

· Understand protection philosophy, A)Selectivity. B) Sensitivity. C) Speed. D) Reliability. E) Simplicity. D)Economy.

· Relationship between selectivity and zones of protection. open & close zones, tele protection

· Look at Primary, backup & duplicate protection

· Look at relay classification, Electromechanical, Digital, Microprocessor & Numerical relays

· What are phase & ration compensation in transformer differential protection, interposing C.Ts

· How Over Current, Earth fault relay operates

· How Direction Overcurrent relay, Definite time & inverse time overcurrent relay operates.

· Understand Magnitude, differential & phase comparison principles

· look at the working principle of Breaker failure relay

· look at the basic electrical theory, Ohms Law, KVL, KCL, Calculate HV & LV rated & short circuit current transformer

· Introduction to the per-unit system, how to evaluate arc flash hazard using the per-unit system

· look at three-phase systems, balanced, unbalanced, three-phase fault, phase to phase fault, phase to ground fault

· Understand Symmetrical components

· Look at primary & secondary equipment, electrical wiring basics

· Understand Auxiliary relays, Main relays, Contactors

· Difference between Circuit Breaker & Isolator & Load Break Switch

· Understand the concept of interlocking

· Understand surge arrestor & surge counter

· look at GIS, AIF & MV SWGR

· Look at CB operating cycle, pole discrepancy, anti pumping, trip circuit supervision schemes.

· Intro to ANSI device codes

· Introduction to internal, external & through faults

· Look at Capacitor Storage trip units

· Show batteries & charger, how they work, Single Line Diagram of DC system, Single Line Diagram of Charger

· look at LCC, Gas diagram, Gas compartment, Gas permeable & Gas tight

· introduction to Relay Coordination

· Look at complete protection engineering cycle Design Phase, Manufacturing Phase, Shipment Phase, Inspection, T&C, Maintenance

· Look at three-phase currents and see how they can be broken down into sequence components and harmonics.

· Provide the basic principles behind current transformers, how they operate and need to be connected

· Show how voltage transformers operate and introduce the key types

· Go into detail on what happens when a fault occurs on the system

· Look into circuit breaker control and protection systems and how they interact with the protection systems.

· The main protection relay we will look at on this course is over protection. We go into detail on the basic and more advanced versions and show how this relay can be put to good use to provide great fault discrimination

· Look at the different types of earth fault relays and see how they can be used to protect some key equipment\s

By the end of the course, the student will be able to identify all of the key components of a protection & control system, understand how all of these components fit together to create a fully integrated system, protection fundamental concept, protection schemes & relays, battery charger & batteries.

Remember that Udemy offers a 30-day money-back guarantee. I am also always available for questions while you go through the course to ensure everything is clear.

See you in the course!

Who this course is for:

  • Electrical Engineering Undergraduates
  • Electrical Engineering Graduates
  • Technicians
  • Power/Utility Engineer
  • Anyone interested in electrical engineering

Course content

25 sections • 86 lectures • 8h 56m total length
  • Introduction
  • Protection Philosophy
  • Primary and Secondary Equipments
  • Base Design, Detail Design & Interlocking
  • GIS, LCC, Gas Compartments
  • Protection System Components
  • Understanding Burden
  • Protection Engineering Cycle
  • Zones of Protection
  • Primary, Back up & Duplicate Protection
  • Communication Added Tripping Scheme
  • Elements of Power System
  • Relay Classification
  • Level Detection Relays, Over Current & Earth Fault Relays
  • Magnitude, Differential & Phase Angle Comparison Relays
  • Breaker Failure & Busbar Protection
  • Factors Influencing Relay Performance
  • Basic Electrical Theory, Phasors, Symmetrical Components, Per Unit System, Arc
  • Current and Voltage Transformers
  • Batteries, Charger, DC System
  • Breaker Trip Device When DC supply fail
  • Relay installed at different protection and relay device Code / ANSI code
  • Circuit Breaker
  • ACDB
  • Last Words
Created by: Muhammad Kashif,  ENGINEER
Last updated 4/2021
English [Auto]
Direct Download Available
Hot & New
Rating: 5.0 out of 5
(5 ratings)
62 students

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